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Cargo aircraft and Cargo Aircraft Only.

General Requirements
The packagings must be of good quality, strong enough to withstand the shocks and loadings normally encountered during transport, including trans-shipment between transport units and between transport units and warehouses as well as any removal from a pallet or overpack for subsequent manual or mechanical handling. Packagings must be constructed and closed so as to prevent any loss of contents that might be caused under normal conditions of transport, by vibration, or by changes in temperature, humidity or pressure.

The packaging must consist of three components:
(a) a primary receptacle(s);
(b) a secondary packaging; and
(c) a rigid outer packaging.

Primary receptacles must be packed in secondary packagings in such a way that, under normal conditions of transport, they cannot break, be punctured or leak their contents into the secondary packaging. Secondary packagings must be secured in outer packagings with suitable cushioning material. Any leakage of the contents must not compromise the integrity of the cushioning material or of the outer packaging.

Dangerous Goods Regulations
Packages must be prepared as follows:
(a) For liquid substances:
The primary receptacle(s) must be leakproof and must not contain more than 1 L;
The secondary packaging must be leakproof;
If multiple fragile primary receptacles are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be either individually wrapped or separated to prevent contact between them;
Absorbent material must be placed between the primary receptacle and the secondary packaging. The absorbent 650 material, such as cotton wool, must be in sufficient quantity to absorb the entire contents of the primary receptacle(s) so that any release of the liquid substance will not compromise the integrity of the cushioning material or of the outer packaging;
The primary receptacle or the secondary packaging must be capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal pressure of 95 kPa in the range of -40C to 55C (-40F to 130F).

The capability of a packaging to withstand an internal pressure without leakage that produces the specified pressure
differential should be determined by testing samples of primary receptacles or secondary packagings. Pressure
differential is the difference between the pressure exerted on the inside of the receptacle or packaging and
the pressure on the outside. The appropriate test method should be selected based on receptacle or packaging type.
Acceptable test methods include any method that produces the required pressure differential between the inside and
outside of a primary receptacle or a secondary packaging. The test may be conducted using internal hydraulic or
pneumatic pressure (gauge) or external vacuum test methods. Internal hydraulic or pneumatic pressure can be
applied in most cases as the required pressure differential can be achieved under most circumstances. An external
vacuum test is not acceptable if the specified pressure differential is not achieved and maintained. The external vacuum test is a generally acceptable method for rigid receptacles and packagings but is not normally acceptable for:
– flexible receptacles and flexible packagings;
– receptacles and packagings filled and closed under a absolute atmospheric pressure lower than 95 kPa.
– The outer packaging must not contain more than 4 L. This quantity excludes ice, dry ice or liquid nitrogen when
used to keep specimens cold.

Reference: WHO (updated June 2015)